My curiosity led me down a rabbit hole of all the different companies I could think of that currently produce professional hair colors. This is by no means the most comprehensive list of all the companies in the world. Also, I am only including the times that the particular brands were created, plus the website where the information came from. Some have a lot more interesting things that I would like to go back and research more.
Schwarzkopf: founded in 1898 as a drugstore by chemist Hans Schwarzkopf
L'oreal: Founded in 1909 by chemist Eugene Schueller
Wella: In 1924 Franz Stroher and his sons, Karl and George, filed a patent on the name Wella, meaning wave, at the German patent office
Kenra: Begins in 1929 in Indianapolis with "no tweeze" wax depilatory. Purchased in 1959 by Henry J. Meyers
Clairol: Purchased in 1931 by Lawrence and Joan Gelb from the Parisian company Le Parfume de Mury and bring to the US
Roux: Developed in 1932 by George Kremer Jr.
Goldwell: Hans Erich Dotter establishes the Goldwell Fabrikate in 1948
Redken: Createded in 1960 by Jehri Redding and Paula Kent. Redding was developing a low Ph product for Kent
Joico: Founded in LA in 1975 by Steve Stefano
Paul Mitchell: In 1980 John Paul Mitchell and John Paul DeJoria found John Paul Mitchell Systems with only $700 of their own money
Matrix: Founded in 1980 by Arnie and Sydell Miller
Scruples: Began as a family run business in 1983
Rusk: Founded by Irvine and Louise Rusk in 1993
Pravana: Founded in 2004 by Steve Goddard. Pravana is a Sanskrit phrase: The source of all things